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A Detailed Guide on Vascular System by Sunil S. Rayan

A Detailed Guide on Vascular System by Sunil S. Rayan

Posted by: Sunil S. Rayan MD FACS | Date added: Tue 12 Feb 2019

Arteries and veins are two vital blood vassals in human body, which plays its part in blood transportation throughout, to keep body functioning apposite.

Arteries are responsible to take blood from heart to the rest body parts while on the other hand veins takes blood back to the heart for re-oxygenation. Get in to the bottom depth of the process with Sunil S. Rayan a veteran vascular surgeon in the niche.   

Both of the blood vessels are the part of two closed tubes which opens and closes in heart.

·         Pulmonary: Ensures flow of oxygenated blood from heart to lungs.

·         Systemic: They return oxygen-poor blood back to the heart’s right atrium.

What Human Cardiovascular System Contains?

Cardiovascular system is a combination of arteries, veins and capillaries have a common connection with heart and work together to transport nutrients and blood to the small body units which is called a cell in medical terminology. Vascular system comprises in following numerous parts:

·         Arteries: Takes oxygenated blood from heart to rest body parts except Pulmonary arteries which are responsible for the blood flow from heart to the lungs.


·         Capillaries: They are interconnector between arteries and veins which enables exchange of oxygen between blood tissues.


·         Veins:  Crucial transporter of deoxygenated blood from tissues back to the heart.


·         Heart: Pumping of blood is the primary function of heart, which is bifurcated into four chambers right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle.     

 Types of Arteries Available in Human Body

Human body primarily has three types of arteries, which are subdivided into three parts inner, outer and middle.

·         Elastic Arteries: Enriched with collagen and elastin and allows it to stretch according to the pulse.


·         Muscular Arteries: It is a medium size artery which takes blood from elastic artery and branch it into resistance vessels and other tiny arteries.


·         Arterioles: Transport blood away from heart and direct it in the capillaries.


Types of Veins Available in Human Body


·        Superficial Veins: These veins are closer to the skin surface, and are not connected or paired up with arteries.

·        Deep Veins: Resides with in the muscle tissues and have arteries in correspondence.

·         Communicating Veins: Establish a communication between two different points in venous system.

·        Pulmonary.

·        Systemic.

Dissection of Arteries and Veins

Outer Layer:  Tunica externa or outer layer of veins and arteries are made of collagen and elastin fibers which allow these veins and arteries to stretch and contract accordingly.

Middle Layer: It is medium in size and is made of strong muscle and elastic; these are thicker on arteries and thinner on veins.

Inner Layer: It is the inner most layer and composed with endothelial cells, consistency varies accordingly.

Apart from numerous layers, blood vessels contain valves which keep smooth blood flow to the heart. They have its particular importance in arms and legs, these battles against gravity to prevent the backflow of blood.